This Cochrane Group is no longer active

Due to changes in NIHR funding in evidence synthesis, this Cochrane Group is no longer active. We are so grateful for the work of our contributors.

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LMIC Filters

Filters for MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), and CENTRAL (Cochrane Library) to help identify studies relevant to LMIC.

Filters are based on the World Bank list of countries (2021), classified as low-income, lower-middle-income or upper-middle-income economies:

None of the filters have been validated.

If you would like to help improve these filters, please send an e-mail to Any comments and suggestions are more than welcome.

The EPOC LMIC filters were developed in collaboration with colleagues at the 
WHO Library and the Campbell Collaboration.

·       View the EPOC LMIC Filters 2022 

·       View an evaluation of the EPOC LMIC Filters 2020 in the Cochrane Information Specialist (CIS) Support Digest, Issue 61, June 2020

·       View the ScHARR LMIC filter: Sutton, ACampbell, FThe ScHARR LMIC filter: Adapting a low- and middle-income countries geographic search filter to identify studies on preterm birth prevention and management. Res Syn Meth. 2022110. doi:10.1002/jrsm.1552